Below you will find the findings of our most recent wave of data collection about entrepreneurship education in the United States. The results are broken down across five conceptual groupings:
Entrepreneurship Programs Offered
Within the graduate level programs, entrepreneurship is more represented in Masters of Business Administration Programs as a Certificate. Additionally, we see a rise in Entrepreneurship focused MBA programs, while entrepreneurship certificates within graduate programs, entrepreneurship masters of science programs and entrepreneurship PhD / DBA programs remain slightly under-represented in the United States.
Business Programs Offered
Within Business Programs across the country, there is a high focus on undergraduate programs, both minors and majors and a lower representation for Masters of Science, PhD/DBA and Graduate Business Certificate programs. Masters of Business Administration (MBA), continues to be one of the flagship programs within business schools.
Student Enrollment in Business Programs
The level of student enrollment in the aforementioned business programs directly corresponds with the number of programs offered and has shown similar outcomes to the programs available in this figure. The large majority of students are enrolled in undergraduate business majors, which the lowest enrollment occurs within PhD/DBA Programs. Comparing these results from our initial report from the 2011-12 National Entrepreneurship Survey, we can conclude a decrease in enrollment in PhD/DBA programs throughout the United States. In the previous report, graduate certificate programs had the lowest enrollment by a small margin.
Summarizing a variety of courses offered throughout programs in the United States, we can conclude that the top 5 courses throughout entrepreneurship programs include: (1) Entrepreneurship; (2) Business Planning; (3) Entrepreneurial Finance; (4) New Venture Creation; (5) Innovation. The three courses that tend received the lowest scores include: (1) Franchising; (2) Venture Capital; (3) Small Business Financing.
Average Enrollment in Courses Offered
Comparing the number of sections offered with the number of students enrolled for the courses listed in this figure, we see that the 5 most popular courses offered include: (1) Technology; (2) Entrepreneurship; (3) Venture Capital; (4) Business Planning; (5) Creativity. The three courses that received the lowest enrollment numbers include: (1) Franchising; (2) Family Business; (3) Small Business Consulting.
Faculty Hired in Entrepreneurship Programs
This figure shows the average number of professors who teach entrepreneurship employed by their respective colleges and universities. As the chart indicates, there are more full-time faculty hired in the Fall than part-time and the number of full- and part-time faculty hired in the spring is the same, at an average of 3 per program. The 'Other' category included responses community partners, contract positions, co-op teachers, doctorate students, Entrepreneurs-in-Residence, and faculty from other departments.
Complimentary Entrepreneurship Resources & Initiatives
Looking at the average type of additional programs that a school could have within their entrepreneurship program, the most popular include: Entrepreneurship Centers or Institutions, Entrepreneur-in-Residence positions, Endowed Chairs of Entrepreneurship, and Small Business Development Centers. Other initiatives being adapted throughout colleges and universities include: Incubators, Family Business Centers, and Fellows Programs.
Complimentary Entrepreneurship Resources & Initiatives
Responsibility and oversight for the general entrepreneurship curriculum, as well as the additional resources and initiatives outlined above, fall on the shoulders of many difference sources. This figure shows, on average, which departments generally house these programs. As illustrated, programs are mostly likely to be housed within existing departments of the university or college. These initiatives are less likely to be housed within a department that is dedicated to small business or entrepreneurship. Also surprisingly, they are more likely to be housed within an existing department than within the school of business within the college or university. This shows the growth trend towards integrating entrepreneurship across various disciplines within a school - a trend that will come up in the Impact section of the report.
To fund courses within the entrepreneurship program, funding often comes through external sources. As outlined, 29% of survey respondents indicated that funding came from alumni, 20% indicated that funding came from non-alumni entrepreneurs and 14% indicated resources from the federal government. The other two resources listed, the two that received the least number of responses at 9% and 3% are the Coleman Foundation and Kauffman Foundation respectively. Other sources listed included private donors or foundations, public agencies, other university divisions or individuals and grants.
Extracurricular Opportunities for Students
Opportunities for students' academic and professional growth are expanding beyond the classroom and into other programs and events. This figure outlines how survey participants rated each extracurricular option. The most popular programs outside of the classroom include business plan competitions, entrepreneurship clubs, distinguished speaker series, and elevator pitch competitions.
In figure we measure the level of frequency in which faculty use various teaching pedagogies in their entrepreneurship courses. In this particular chart, higher frequency of use is depicted with a lower value, respondents were asked to rank frequency of use of a scale of 1-6, with 1 representing 'very frequent', 5 representing 'seldom', and 6 representing 'Non-Applicable (N/A).' As the figure shows, the six most frequently used pedagogies are discussions, creation of business plans, in-class exercises, lectures from small business owners and guest speakers. The five most infrequently used include small business institute (SBI), twitter, blogging, computer simulations and counseling programs.
Major Topics Covered in Curriculum
Survey participants were asked to indicate whether or not one of the 7 major topics listed were included in their entrepreneurship, small business management curriculum, neither or both. The results show that all of the topics showed up in the entrepreneurship curriculum more than small business management and that they showed up more in both than in neither. The topic that showed up most in the entrepreneurship curriculum is Psychology Traits and Startup Characteristics and the topic that is covered the least is Sustainability. The topic covered the most in small business management is marketing and the topic covered the least is Psychology Traits and Startup Characteristics. Financing was the topic that was rated the highest as being covered under both curriculum and sustainability was rated the highest for being the topic that was not covered under either curriculum.
Common Teaching Materials
To learn more about how faculty and educators are presenting information to students, survey respondents were asked to specify which of 9 teaching materials they used most recently. The most popular teaching materials included textbooks, websites, reading books, sets of readings and text material, and trade books.
Commonly Used Periodicals
The most highly rated periodicals include Entrepreneur, Inc., Fast Company, The Wall Street Journal and Business Week.
Commonly Used Academic Journals
The most highly rated academic journals include Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Journal of Small Business Management, and the Journal of Business Venturing. Overall there were more responses to the use of periodicals versus academic journals.
Social Entrepreneurship Course Program Offerings
Of the respondents surveyed, 40% indicated that they offer course(s) dedicated or specific to social entrepreneurship. To learn more about how social entrepreneurship is being fit into curriculum, respondents were asked to identify which programs the topic is usually covered in. The results show that the majority of social entrepreneurship course offerings lie within undergraduate majors and minors and MBA Programs.
Utilizing Online Resources
To determine the level of adaptation of online resources by universities and colleges in entrepreneurship education, participants were asked to indicate whether or not they used certain technologies listed. The results show that the majority of individuals indicated that they used web-based assignments in their entrepreneurship curriculum and posted information regarding entrepreneurship and new venture creation. Although blogging seems to be a growing trend, many businesses turning to the inexpensive medium to educate consumers on their brand and industry, in entrepreneurship education it is not as prevalent, only 25% of respondents indicated that they blog regularly. Another infrequently used online resource is delivering entrepreneurship courses online, with only 27% of respondents indicating that they offer online courses.
Social Media Use
With the growing use in social media, survey respondents were also asked to indicate which medium they use most often. The results show that Facebook is used most often, followed by LinkedIn and Twitter. The least used media are Instagram and Pintrest and Google+.
Student Opportunities Outside of the Entrepreneurship Program
Survey respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they offered any of the following opportunities - internships, online learning, and continuing education or executive development courses. The results show that the majority of respondents indicated that they offered internship opportunities. It also shows that entrepreneurship education has still not made a big move towards offering online courses, as this option was the lowest ranked only behind executive development courses.
The majority of schools participate in external business plan competitions as their main form of developing external relationships. Another highly rated figure was that the school as a whole works to help promote and highlight the entrepreneurship and small business program.